Terminology

ANGUS SIRES

CAB: Meets the criteria for Certified Angus Beef’s (CAB) Targeting the Brand.

PERFORMANCE DATA
BIRTH WT. (BW): The weight of a calf taken within 24 hours after birth.

ADJUSTED WEANING WEIGHT (WW): An unshrunk, off-the-cow weight adjusted to 205
days of age and to a mature-dam age equivalence.

ADJUSTED YEARLING WEIGHT (YW): An unshrunk weight adjusted to 365 days of age.

SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE: A measure of testes size obtained by measuring the distance around the testicles in the scrotum with a circular tape. Related to semen-producing capacity and age at puberty of female sibs and progeny.

FRAME SCORE: A score based on subjective evaluation of height or actual measurement
of hip height. This score is related to slaughter weights at which cattle should attain a given quality grade or attain a given amount of fat thickness.

HETEROZYGOUS: Genes of a specific pair (alleles) are different in an individual (e.g., Aa).

HOMOZYGOUS: Genes of a specific pair (alleles) are alike in an individual (e.g., AA or aa).

POLLED: Naturally hornless cattle. Having no horns or scurs.

POLLED/SCURRED: Individuals who are polled with scurs.

HOMOZYGOUS POLLED: Bulls which have a 99.9% probability of being homozygous
polled, having been test mated to horned or heterozygous polled cows. You should expect these bulls to sire all polled calves.

HOMOZYGOUS BLACK: These bulls have a 99.9% probability of being homozygous black,having been test mated to red and heterozygous black cows. You should expect these bulls to sire black calves when mated to red or black cows.

NON-DILUTER: These cattle do not carry the dilution gene. The dilution gene causes black coat color to be gray and red coat color to be yellow.

PAP (Pulmonary Arterial Pressure) SCORE: A prediction of an animal’s welfare at high altitudes and susceptible to High Altitude Disease (HAD), also known as Brisket Disease. Scores under 45 are favorable.

SIRE EVALUATION DATA
EXPECTED PROGENY DIFFERENCE (EPD): The difference in performance to be expected from future progeny of a sire, compared with that expected from future progeny of the average bull in the same test. EPD is an estimate based on progeny testing and is equal to one-half the estimate of breeding value obtainable from the progeny test records. EPDs for growth traits are generally expressed in pounds, either as a plus difference or minimum difference from the population average. EPDs are generally reported in the units of measure of the trait, (e.g., pounds, cm, cm2, percent, etc.)

ACCURACY (ACC): The reliability that can be placed on the expected progeny difference
(EPD). An accuracy of close to 1.0 indicates higher reliability.

BIRTH WEIGHT (BW): Calf weight at birth adjusted to a mature dam equivalent. Expected progeny performance is reported in pounds. The EPD value predicts the difference in average birth weight of a bull’s calves compared to calves of all other bulls evaluated. A positive value indicates heavier-than-average birth weights while a negative value (-) indicates lighter-thanaverage birth weights.

CALVING EASE (DIRECT): The ease with which a bull’s calves are born to first-calf heifers. A first-calf heifer is defined as a female calving for the first time at 33 months of age or less.

Expected progeny differences are reported as deviations in the percent unassisted births.
When comparing calving ease EPDs of two sires, the larger EPD indicates a higher percent of unassisted births for calves sired by this bull.

WEANING WEIGHT EPD (WW): A sire’s expected progeny difference (lb.) for 205-day,
mature dam equivalent weaning weight. A sire’s weaning weight EPD is an indication of
growth to weaning. It does not indicate milk production.

YEARLING WEIGHT EPD (YW): A sire’s expected progeny difference (lb.) for 365-day,
mature dam equivalent yearling weight.

RADG EPD - RADG allows producers to characterize Angus genetics that will perform more efficiently in a post weaning feeding environment. It provides a balanced approach to identify cattle that, with a given quantity of feed, will still perform at industry acceptable levels. RADG is presented in pounds (lb.) per day, with a higher value being more favorable.

YEARLING HEIGHT (YH): A predictor, expressed in inches, of a sire’s ability to transmit
yearling height.

SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE EPD (SC): A predictor, expressed in centimeters, of the
difference in transmitting ability for scrotal size.
DOCILITY (DOC): A tool to increase the probability of docile calves from one sire compared to calves of other sires. The EPD is expressed as a genetic difference in percentage units, with a higher value being more favorable for calmer temperament.

DAUGHTER EVALUATION


MATERNAL MILK (MILK): The maternal ability of a bull’s daughters. Expected progeny
performance is expressed in pounds of calf weaning weight. The EPD value predicts the
difference (due to maternal ability) in average 205-day weight of a bull’s daughters’ calves compared to calves of all other bulls evaluated.

MATERNAL WEANING (MWW): The weaning weight of a bull’s daughters’ calves.
Expected progeny performance is reported in pounds. The EPD value predicts the
difference in average 205-day weight of bull’s daughters’ calves compared to calves from
daughters of all other bulls evaluated. The evaluation reflects both the maternal ability of a bull’s daughters and the growth potential of their calves.

MATURE DAUGHTER/COW WEIGHT EPD (MW/MCW): A predictor of the difference
in mature size of a sire’s daughters expressed in pounds.

MATURE DAUGHTER HEIGHT EPD (MH): A predictor of the difference in mature
daughter height of a sire’s daughters expressed in inches.

MATERNAL CALVING EASE (MCE): The ease with which a sire’s daughters calve as
first-calf heifers. Expected progeny differences are reported as deviations in the percent
unassisted births.

HEIFER PREGNANCY (HPG): A tool to increase the chance of a sire’s daughters
becoming pregnant as heifers during a normal breeding season. The EPD is expressed as a genetic difference in percentage units, with a higher value being more favorable.

STAYABILITY (STAY.): The expressed difference in probability of daughters staying
in the herd to at least six years of age. Since cows are usually only culled for being open
before six years, the EPD is primarily a measure of sustained fertility in female offspring.

CARCASS EVALUATION
CARCASS WEIGHT EPD (CW): A predictor, expressed in pounds, of the differences in
hot carcass weight of a sire’s progeny at a given end point .

MARBLING EPD (MARB): An expression, as a fraction, of the differences in a subjective
USDA marbling score of a sire’s progeny at a given end point.

RIBEYE AREA EPD (REA): A predictor, expressed in square inches, of the differences in
rib eye area of a sire’s progeny at a given end point.

FAT THICKNESS EPD (FT): A predictor, expressed in inches, of the differences in fat
thickness of a sire’s progeny, between the 12th and 13th ribs, at a given end point.

SHEAR EPD: An EPD developed from the Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) test where the pounds of Force are measured to shear a steak. This is a measurement of tenderness. The more negative the number the more tender.

YIELD GRADE EPD (YG): Carcass yield grade score at 475 days.

BIO-ECONOMIC $VALUES

ANGUS


WEANED CALF VALUE ($W) is the expected average difference in future progeny
performance for preweaning merit. $W includes both revenue and cost adjustments
associated with differences in birth weight, weaning direct growth, maternal milk, and
mature cow size.

COW ENERGY VALUE ($EN) assesses differences in cow energy requirements, expressed in dollars per cow per year, as an expected dollar savings difference in future daughters of sires. A larger value is more favorable when comparing two animals.

FEEDLOT VALUE ($F) is the expected average difference in future progeny performance
for postweaning merit compared to progeny of other sires.

GRID VALUE ($G) is the expected average difference in future progeny performance for
carcass grid merit compared to progeny of other sires.

QUALITY GRADE ($QG) represents the quality grade segment of the economic
advantage found in $G. $QG is intended for the specialized user wanting to place more
emphasis on improving quality grade.

YIELD GRADE ($YG) represents the yield grade segment of the economic advantage
found in $G. $YG is intended for the specialized user wanting to place more emphasis on
red meat yield.

BEEF VALUE ($B) is the expected average difference in future progeny performance for
postweaning and carcass value compared to progeny of other sires.

SIMMENTAL

ALL-PURPOSE INDEX (API) Evaluates sires for use on the entire cow herd (bred to both Angus first-calf heifers and mature cows) with the portion of their daughters required to maintain herd size retained and the remaining heifers and steers put on feed and sold grade and yield.

TERMINAL INDEX (TI) Evaluates sires for use on mature Angus cows with all offspring
put on feed and sold grade and yield.

HEREFORD
BALDY MATERNAL INDEX (BMI$) A maternally focused index that has a production
system based on 1,000 Hereford x Angus females with a progeny harvest endpoint directed toward CHB.

CALVING EASY INDEX (CEZ$) A general purpose index that focuses on identifying bulls that can be used on heifers and then ultimately the calves will be marketed through CHB.

BRAHMAN INFLUENCE INDEX (BII$) A maternally focused index that is based on a
1,000 head cow herd of Brahman x Hereford cross cows. The progeny for this index will be harvested in a commodity based system.

CERTIFIED HEREFORD BEEF INDEX (CHB$) A terminal sire index that is built on a
production system where Hereford bulls sire calves for the CHB market.